economy continued the forward momentum that had begun to build in 1969. Was this movement intended to achieve modernisation and reform or an attempt to reinforce traditional Chinese values? Maos efforts to end the chaos were given added impetus by the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968, which greatly heightened Chinas sense of insecurity. They grossly distorted Maos policies and directives, carried sound initiatives to extremes that turned them inside out and upside down, and succeeded in wrecking whatever they touched. To what extent was the Peoples Republic answerable to the people? Imperialism in the Pacific and Southeast Asia (the Vietnam War was still raging in 1971). During the earliest part of the Red Guard phase, key Politburo leaders were removed from powermost notably President Liu Shaoqi, Maos designated successor until that time, and Party General Secretary Deng Xiaoping. Writing in the early 1970s, Hinton made a profound observation: socialist revolution is much more complex and difficult than most revolutionaries have hitherto supposed, that the seizure of poweris only the first step in a protracted revolutionary process. The resulting anarchy, terror, and paralysis completely disrupted the urban economy. While these questions helped to define the dividing line between the contending forces in China, Hinton emphasized that the Cultural Revolution developed as a result of internal contradictions arising out of socialist construction in China. Matters came to a head in September 1971 when essay articles about education Lin himself was killed in what the Chinese asserted was an attempt to flee to the Soviet Union after an abortive assassination plot against Mao.
Among the people themselves, there remained bitter factionalism, as those who opposed each other during the Cultural Revolution often shared the same work unit and would do so for their entire careers. Where and how did these groups acquire and develop their ideology? We are not told which factions of the Red Guards were involvedthose honestly trying to carry out Maos policies, ultra-leftists, or role of students in developing india essay sham Red Guards organized by Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, the main proponents in the party of taking the capitalist road. And the whole idea that the method must be to mobilize the common people to seize power from below in order to establish new representative leading bodies, democratically elected organs of power was a breakthrough in history summed up by the phrase bombard the headquarters. Did these reforms bolster Qing rule or weaken it? During 1972, however, Mao suffered a serious stroke, and Zhou learned that he had a fatal malignancy. Deng, however, had been the second most important purge victim at the hands of the radicals during the Cultural Revolution. Virtually the entire Chinese high military command was purged in the weeks following Lins death.
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