particularly in younger children who are more likely to have family meals (Fulkerson., ) and since most. Further work investigating the effects of breakfast on school performance should carefully consider the role of confounding, and apply adequate controls in the analysis, particularly for SES. Measurements of habitual breakfast intake are normally brief dietary assessments, given their use in situations for to measure specific aspects of diet. Welfare Ruptures (murtuma Recognising Uncertainties, Finding Solutions. The main applications of the research area include medical imaging, photonics applications, sustainable management of natural resources (remote sensing in forests, mapping of water resources, management of industrial wastewaters and climate change research (improving the accuracy of climate change models). However, this information is rarely collected or utilised even though vast amount of structural data (for example registers) are routinely produced. Similarly, the majority of studies employing composite measures of school grades across subject domains show a positive association which, may be related to increased power afforded by composite measures. The research area brings together researchers from three UEF faculties: the Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies (departments of social sciences, social and health management, business school and law school the Philosophical Faculty and the Faculty of Health Sciences. However, some of the evidence was inconsistent (Gajre., ; O'Dea and Mugridge, ).
This multidisciplinary research area makes use of the methods of pharmacy, medicine, materials science, chemistry and mathematical modelling. The framework of the strategy of the University of Eastern Finland is built around four global challenges: ageing, lifestyles and health, learning in a digitised society, cultural encounters, mobilities and borders and environmental change and sufficiency of natural resources. A sustainable and comprehensive management of water ecosystems in an industrial environment calls for high-level application and integrated development of materials science, environmental science and aquatic biology. Adolescence is a period of rapid growth, increasing body image concerns, changing eating habits, increased independence over diet, greater peer influence and decreased cooperation with authority, all of which may decrease compliance and reporting accuracy in this population (Livingstone., ). The majority of studies on habitual breakfast intake are based on adolescent samples aged 1218 years. We actively collaborate with other universities, hospitals, drug industry companies and authorities. Research area directors/contact persons: Professor Juho Saari).
In support, studies that were carried out in samples including undernourished children demonstrated consistent positive effects of breakfast on school performance (Jacoby., 1996 ; Powell., ; Simeon, ; Cueto and Chinen, 2008 ). Furthermore, all food and drink consumed as part of breakfast may not be considered. Research on breakfast and educational outcomes is a particularly difficult area given the potential for confounding. Our funding base includes funding obtained from the European Union, the US Food and Drug Administration, FDA, drug industry companies, and the Academy of Finland. Modern, state-of-the-art scientific research and the development of new technologies increasingly seeks to make use of computational science technologies in the analysis of data and to replace traditional experiments with computer simulations in the study of different phenomena. Concrete examples of research topics are effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analyses of drugs, procedures, services and operating models, utilisation of register and customer/patient documentation, and the development and validation of indicators and methods. Similarly, there is well established consistent evidence that SES is a central determinant of academic performance and cognitive ability (Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, ; McLoyd, ; McCulloch and Joshi, ; Machin and Vignoles, 2004 ).
Varying definitions of breakfast and classifications of habitual consumption are used. This is suggestive of a possible mechanism by which breakfast may improve school performance. Clearly, the increase in school performance reported in studies that do not impact breakfast eating behavior is likely to be an artifact of other outcomes.
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